The Internet of Things is an important part of a new generation of information technology, and it is also an important stage of development in the “informatization” era. Its English name is: "Internet of things (IoT)". As the name suggests, the Internet of Things is the Internet that connects objects. This has two meanings: First, the core and foundation of the Internet of Things is still the Internet, which is an extension and expansion network based on the Internet; Second, its user end extends and expands to any item and item, and carries out information. Exchanges and communications, that is, objects rest. The IoT is widely used in the convergence of networks through the communication sensing technologies such as IntelliSense, recognition technology, and pervasive computing. It is therefore also known as the third wave of development of the world's information industry following the computer and the Internet. The Internet of Things is an application extension of the Internet. It is not so much the Internet of Things as a network. It is better to say that the Internet of Things is a business and an application. Therefore, application innovation is the core of the development of the Internet of Things. Innovation 2.0, with user experience as the core, is the soul of the development of the Internet of Things.
Initially proposed in 1999: Through information-sensing equipment such as RFID (Internet of RFID), infrared sensors, global positioning systems, laser scanners, gas sensors, etc., according to the agreed protocol, to connect any item to the Internet. It is a network that carries out information exchange and communication to realize intelligent identification, positioning, tracking, monitoring and management. In short, the Internet of Things is a "connected Internet of Things."
China Internet of Things School-Enterprise Alliance defines the Internet of Things as a combination of almost all current technologies and computers and Internet technologies, realizing the real-time sharing of objects and objects: real-time environment and status information and intelligent collection, transfer, processing, and execution. . Broadly speaking, the current application involving information technology can be integrated into the Internet of Things category. 
In its famous technology fusion model, it is proposed that the Internet of Things is the scientific concept and application closest to the top of the model. The Internet of Things (IoT) is an information carrier based on the Internet and traditional telecommunication networks, allowing all common physical objects that can be independently addressed to realize interoperable networks. It has three important features: smart, advanced, and connected.
The ITU Internet Report published by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) defines the Internet of Things as follows: Information sensing through two-dimensional code reading devices, radio frequency identification (RFID) devices, infrared sensors, global positioning systems, and laser scanners. The equipment, in accordance with the agreed protocol, connects any item with the Internet and carries out information exchange and communication to realize a network that is intelligently identified, located, tracked, monitored and managed.
According to the definition of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), the Internet of Things mainly solves the problems of Thing to Thing (T2T), Human to Thing (H2T), and Human to Human (H2H). even. However, unlike the traditional Internet, H2T refers to the connection between people using common devices and items, which makes the connection of items easier. H2H refers to the interconnection between people who does not rely on PCs. Because the Internet does not consider the issue of connection to any item, we use the Internet of Things to solve this traditional problem. The Internet of Things, as its name suggests, is a network of connected items. Many scholars discuss the Internet of Things and often introduce a concept of M2M that can be interpreted as Man to Man, Man to Machine, and Machine to Machine. Above all, most of the interaction between people and machines, machines and machines is to realize the information exchange between people.
The Internet of Things (IoT) is a massive network that is formed through the integration of the Internet with real-time acquisition of any information that requires monitoring, connection, and interaction of objects or processes through various information sensing devices. Its purpose is to achieve the connection between things and things, things and people, all the items and the network, to facilitate identification, management and control. Its industry scale in 2011 exceeded RMB 260 billion. The supporting, sensing, transport, platform, and application layers that make up the Internet of Things industry's five tiers account for 2.7%, 22.0%, 33.1%, 37.5%, and 4.7% of the IoT industry scale, respectively. The Internet of Things (Awareness) layer and the transport layer participate in many vendors and become the most competitive field in the industry.
In terms of industrial distribution, the domestic Internet of Things industry has initially formed the overall industrial spatial pattern of the development of the four major regions of the Bohai Sea, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and the central and western regions. Among them, the industrial scale of the Yangtze River Delta region ranks first in the four major regions.
At the same time, the proposal of the Internet of Things laid the foundation for the construction of a smart city in the country, achieving the interconnection and interoperability of smart cities, and the “Comparative Study on the Architecture and Implementation of the Internet of Things” published by the Journal of Computers . The architecture and implementation methods were analyzed and introduced.
The first Internet of Things, for the media, has opened up new boundaries for information dissemination in our country under the information society's information foundation. The Internet of Things represents a change in people's lifestyle.
Secondly, in the media field, it can provide a good support for the development of our national Internet of things. This process can not be separated from the combing and guidance in the media field.
The third Internet of Things and the media can form a docking interface in the future talent demand. We must make the information technology employees have the interpersonal communication literacy at the same time.
Last but not least, we need to see a convergence of the Internet of Things and the media in the farthest direction. The media represents a vehicle for popularization and informationization, and the Internet of Things has enabled everything to enter into information interconnection.
There are three key technologies in IoT applications
1. Sensor technology: This is also a key technology in computer applications. As we all know, most computer processing so far has been digital signals. Since computers are available, sensors are required to convert analog signals into digital signals for processing.
2. RFID tag: It is also a kind of sensor technology. RFID technology is an integrated technology that integrates wireless radio frequency technology and embedded technology. RFID has a broad application prospect in automatic identification and item logistics management.
3. Embedded system technology: It is a complex technology that integrates computer software and hardware, sensor technology, integrated circuit technology, and electronic application technology. After decades of evolution, intelligent terminal products featuring embedded systems can be seen everywhere; MP3s as small as people, as well as aerospace satellite systems. Embedded systems are changing people’s lives and driving the development of industrial production and defense industries. If you use the human body as a simple metaphor for the Internet of Things, the sensor is equivalent to the human eye, nose, skin and other senses, the network is the nervous system used to transmit information, the embedded system is the human brain, after the receipt of information to be classified deal with. This example vividly describes the position and role of sensors and embedded systems in the Internet of Things.
According to its actual use, it can be summed up in two basic application modes:
The object's smart tag. Identifying specific objects through technologies such as NFC, two-dimensional codes, RFID, and so on, for distinguishing individual objects such as various smart cards we use in life. The basic purpose of bar code labels is to obtain identification information of objects; in addition, smart labels are used. It can also be used to obtain extension information contained in an object item, such as a balance amount on a smart card, a web address and a name included in a two-dimensional code, and the like.
Intelligent control of the object. The Internet of Things is based on a cloud computing platform and an intelligent network. It can make decisions based on the sensor network's acquired data and change the behavior of the object to control and feedback. For example, according to the strength of light to adjust the brightness of street lights, according to the flow of vehicles automatically adjust the traffic light interval.
The implementation of IoT in practical applications requires the participation of all walks of life. It also requires the guidance of national governments and related laws and policies. The development of the Internet of Things has scale, extensive participation, management, technical, and material properties. Such characteristics, among them, technical problems are the most critical issues of the Internet of Things;
The Internet of Things technology is a comprehensive technology. It is a system. There is no company in China that can fully responsible for the overall system planning and construction of the Internet of Things. The theoretical research has been carried out in all walks of life, but the actual application is still only Confined within the industry. The key to the planning and design of the IoT and R&D is the research in the fields of RFID, sensors, embedded software, and transmission data calculation.
In general, the steps for the development of the Internet of Things are as follows:
(1) Identify the attributes of objects, attributes include static and dynamic attributes, static attributes can be stored directly in the tag, dynamic attributes need to be detected by the sensor in real time;
(2) It needs to identify the device to read the object's attributes and convert the information into a data format suitable for network transmission;
(3) The information of the object is transmitted to the information processing center through the network, and the processing center completes the related calculation of the object communication.
Uses and problems
Range of use
The Internet of Things is widely used, covering intelligent transportation, environmental protection, government work, public safety, safe home, smart fire, industrial monitoring, environmental monitoring, street lighting control, landscape lighting control, building lighting control, square lighting control, elderly care, personal Health, flower cultivation, water system monitoring, food traceability, enemy investigations and intelligence gathering.
The report of the International Telecommunication Union in 2005 described the picture of the “Internet of Things” era: when a driver has made a mistake, the car will automatically call the police; the briefcase will remind the owner to forget what to bring; the clothes “tell” the washing machine about the color and temperature of the water. The requirements and so on. The application of the Internet of Things in the field of logistics, for example: a logistics company using a truck with an IoT system. When the vehicle is overloaded, the car will automatically tell you that it is overloaded and how much it is overloaded, but the space is still there, telling you how the cargo is light and heavy. Collocation; When the unloader unloads, a package of goods may yell “You have toss me!” or “Dear, please don’t be too brutal, can you?”; When the driver is engaged in gossip, truck Pretend to be the boss's voice roar, "idiot, the start!"
The Internet of Things uses a new generation of IT technology in various industries. Specifically, it embeds and equips sensors into power grids, railways, bridges, tunnels, roads, buildings, water systems, dams, and oil and gas pipelines. In the kind of objects, the “Internet of Things” is then integrated with the existing Internet to realize the integration of human society and physical systems. In this integrated network, there is a super-powerful central computer group that can integrate people within the network. The implementation of real-time management and control of machinery, equipment, and infrastructure will enable humans to manage production and life in a more refined and dynamic manner, achieve “intelligent” status, improve resource utilization and productivity, and improve human and The relationship between nature.
IoT sensor products have taken the lead in applying the intrusion prevention system at Shanghai Pudong International Airport.
The system has laid more than 30,000 sensor nodes, covering the ground, fences and low-altitude detection, which can prevent the invasion of personnel, smuggling, terrorist attacks and other aggressive invasion. Shanghai World Expo also signed an order with the Wuxi Hi-Tech Micro-Nano Sensor Network Engineering Technology Research and Development Center of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to purchase 15 million yuan of intrusion-proof micro-nano sensor network products.
The ZigBee street light control system lightens the Jinan Garden Expo Park. The application of ZigBee wireless street lighting energy-saving and environmental protection technology is a major highlight of this park garden. All the functional lighting in the campus adopts wireless streetlight control achieved by ZigBee wireless technology.
The first mobile Internet of Things settled in Guangzhou
The combination of mobile terminal and e-commerce allows consumers to interact with merchants conveniently and conveniently, experience brand quality anytime, anywhere, disseminate and share information, and realize Internet's transition to the Internet of Things, creating a new type of zero touch. , high transparency, risk-free market model. Mobile Internet shopping is actually flash purchase. Guangzhou Flash purchase can scan, bar code, two-dimensional code, and other methods through mobile phones, and can perform functions such as shopping, comparison, and identification of products.
This combination of smart phones and e-commerce is one of the important features of the "mobile Internet of Things." It is estimated that the mobile Internet of Things will account for more than half of the Internet of Things in 2013. By 2015, the scale of the mobile Internet of Things market will reach RMB 644.7 billion. The application of mobile Internet of Things is accompanied by the large-scale emergence of e-commerce.
Combination with access control system
A complete access control system consists of eight modules: card reader, controller, electric lock, exit switch, door magnet, power supply, and processing center. The wireless IoT access control simplifies the equipment of the door point to the extreme: a battery-powered lock . In addition to opening the door above the door to lock, the door does not require any equipment around the device. The entire system is concise and clear, significantly shortening the construction period and reducing the cost of later maintenance. The security and reliability of the wireless IoT access control system are mainly reflected in the following two aspects: The security of wireless data communication guarantees the security of data transmission.
Combining with cloud computing
The intelligent processing of the Internet of Things relies on advanced information processing technologies such as cloud computing, pattern recognition, and other technologies. Cloud computing can promote the realization of the Internet of Things and smart world from two aspects: First, cloud computing is the core of implementing the Internet of Things. Second, cloud computing promotes the intelligent integration of the Internet of Things and the Internet.
Combined with TD
The development of the Internet of Things is a great opportunity to ensure the success of TD. TD-SCDMA is a third-generation mobile communication system with independent intellectual property rights in China. It is a broadband wireless communication network. The development of TD requires the pulling of data services. The application of Internet of Things is the most urgent and enhanced data service, and has broad application prospects. The ability to give full play to the advantages of TD networks will help promote the maturity of the TD industry chain.
Improve the existing network, give full play to TD advantages, actively promote the integration of wireless sensor networks and TD networks, build a GPRS/TD/WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) convergence network suitable for Internet of Things applications, and vigorously develop Internet of Things services suitable for TD network hosting. Improving the core competitiveness of TD and giving strong support to the development of the Internet of Things is a development idea of China Mobile.
Combined with mobile internet
The application of the Internet of Things has played a huge role in combining with mobile internet.
Smart home makes the application of the Internet of Things more live, with remote control of the network, remote control, touch switch control, automatic alarm and automatic timing function, ordinary electrician can be installed, change extension and maintenance is very easy, the color of the switch panel , pattern personality, to bring a different life experience for each family.
Combined with the command center
The Internet of Things has been well applied in the command center. The network connection intelligent control system can command the center's large screen, curtains, lights, cameras, DVDs, televisions, TV set-top boxes, video conferences; it can also dispatch cameras on the road. Image to the command center, but also can control the rotation of the camera. The network connection intelligent control system can also be controlled through a 3G network, and can be controlled hierarchically by multiple command centers, and can also be networked and controlled. It can also display the temperature and humidity of the equipment room, and can remotely control various equipment switching power supplies that need to be controlled.
Internet of Things helps food traceability, meat source tracking system
Since 2003, China has begun to apply advanced RFID radio frequency identification technology to modern animal breeding and processing enterprises.