According to current research in various countries, the 5G technology will increase its peak rate by several dozen times compared with the current 4G technology, from 100Gb/s in 4G to several tens of Gb/s. In other words, more than 10 high-definition movies can be downloaded in 1 second, and the number of supportable user connections has increased to 1 million users/km2, which can better meet the massive access scenarios of the Internet of Things. At the same time, the end-to-end latency will be reduced from ten to ten milliseconds in 4G to several milliseconds in 5G.
Because of the powerful communication and bandwidth capabilities, once the 5G network is applied, concepts such as the Internet of Vehicles, the Internet of Things, smart cities, and drone networks will remain in the conceptual stage. In addition, 5G will be further applied to the fields of industry, medical care, security, etc., which can greatly promote the production efficiency in these fields and innovate new production methods.
Academician of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and Director General of the China Internet Association, Qi Hejun, introduced that with the application of 5G networks, all kinds of Internet of Things will rapidly spread. He introduced that there is currently no communication between cars and cars. With 5G networks, cars and cars, cars and data centers, cars and other smart devices can communicate. This will not only enable higher-level automotive autopilot, but also use various traffic data to plan the most reasonable route for the car. Once there are a large number of cars entering this network, intelligent transportation can be smoothly achieved.
According to EU research, telemedicine is also one of the important application areas of 5G. At present, the implementation of remote surgery across national borders requires the hiring of expensive high-volume lines, but there are still delays in the instructions issued by surgical equipment, which represents a huge risk for surgery. However, 5G technology will enable the "command-response" time required for surgery to approach zero, which will greatly improve the accuracy of the doctor's operation. In the near future, if the patient needs emergency surgery or specific surgery, he can perform rapid surgery through telemedicine.
5G networks can also benefit ordinary users. In addition to diversified and non-dating various types of multimedia entertainment, smart home devices will also be connected to 5G networks to provide users with more convenient services.
In addition to the above applications, many Internet of Things applications will also become a field of 5G. Although the Internet of Things has not yet been applied on a large scale, the industry generally believes that the number of devices connected to the Internet of Things is expected to exceed 100 billion, placing high demands on the number of devices, data size, and transmission rate. As the current 3G and 4G technologies cannot provide effective support, the real development of the Internet of Things will not be possible without the maturity of 5G technologies, and it will also become one of the driving forces for the development of 5G technologies.
Seize the opportunity of the revolution in communications technology
Although the 5G technology has broad prospects, it still has some time away from commercial use. The 5G standard has not yet been formally established. But there is no doubt that mastering the right to speak in the formulation of the 5G standard will take the lead in the next-generation mobile communications technology revolution.
According to international practice, the International Telecommunication Union, a United Nations agency specializing in information and communications technology, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, will be the final decision body for the 5G standard. The agency is responsible for the distribution and management of the global radio frequency spectrum, the development of global telecommunications standards, and plays an important role in the global information and communications field.
The International Telecommunication Union has already started the research work on the 5G standard and has defined the work plan for the "IMT (International Mobile Telecommunication System)-2020 and Prospects" project. Among them, the 5G technical performance requirements and evaluation methods will be studied in 2016, and 5G will be launched at the end of 2017. Candidates are recruited and the standard setting is completed by the end of 2020. In this process, all parties including the European Union can submit applications to the International Telecommunication Union.
The EU has clearly stated that it hopes to establish a globally unified 5G technology standard, instead of coexisting multiple standards to achieve global interoperability and economies of scale. In fact, because 5G technology is closely related to the future IoT industry and contains huge economic and strategic benefits, Europe, the United States, Japan, South Korea, and other countries all hope to take the lead in the technical standards. Therefore, they have also conducted corresponding technical research and development and layout early. .
As early as November 2012, the European Union had launched a large-scale scientific research project METIS with a total investment of 27 million euros to develop 5G technology. The project team has a strong R&D lineup. At present, 29 members include Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Huawei, Nokia Siemens and other five equipment manufacturers, and Deutsche Telekom, DoCoMo, France Telecom, Telecom Italia, Telefonica, and Europe. A large number of academic institutions and the BMW Group also have about 80 experts who are fully involved in the project.
In addition to the European Union, the United States, South Korea, and Japan also have domestic operators and telecommunications equipment manufacturers to carry out corresponding technological research and industrial layout. At present, the competition for various countries in the field of 5G standards is becoming increasingly fierce. On May 31st, at the first global 5G conference held in Beijing, the 5G standard setting organizations in various countries revealed the latest developments in their respective R&D.
Japan's 5GMF Secretary General Saotaki Kobayashi explained that after a year and a half of work, Japan has recently launched the "5GMF White Paper." One of its goals is to use 5G services during the Tokyo Olympic Games by 2020. He believes that 5G standardization work is still in its infancy. At present, Japanese operator DoCoMo has conducted some network experiments. Japan will have certain advantages when it comes to 5G standards.
South Korea is positive about 5G development. Youngnam Han, chairman of the 5G Forum Executive Committee, said that South Korea’s 5G commercial process will serve as the key timeline for the 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympics. The 5G Forum will focus on the second phase in the next two years. Test work includes both VR, AR, and system development. The outside world believes that if South Korea can take the lead in applying 5G networks in 2018, it will take the initiative in the formulation of 5G standards.
Chrispearson, president of 5G Americas in the United States, introduced that the members of the organization have conducted a lot of testing work, and the operator AT&T will conduct tests in the second half of 2016.
In addition to the systematic development of technology research and development in various countries, mainstream companies in the industry have also made efforts in the field of 5G. Recently, Qualcomm, a maker of mobile phone chips, said that it is speeding up the research and development of 5G chips. At present, Qualcomm has completed various types of technical tests, and it is expected that by the end of 2018, it will officially launch mass-produced 5G mobile phone chips according to the final 5G international standard. In addition, Huawei, ZTE, Nokia, Ericsson and other telecommunications equipment manufacturers also revealed that they are speeding up the research and development of 5G key technologies and have started related cooperation with telecom operators.
China accelerates the deployment of 5G networks
In the battlefield of 5G without gun smoke, of course, our country is not far behind. Zhang Feng, chief engineer of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, said earlier that China will implement 5G network commercialization by 2020.
Recently, Zhang Feng once again disclosed the related work of China's 5G development in the next phase: Accelerating research and innovation, increasing the research and development of 5G technologies, standards, and products, and establishing an international 5G experimental platform; Strengthening frequency coordination and relying on the International Telecommunication Union to strengthen communication And coordination, and strive to form more 5G unified frequency bands; deepen pragmatic cooperation, establish extensive and in-depth exchange and cooperation mechanisms, actively promote the formation of a globally unified 5G standard under the international framework, promote integrated development, and strengthen the integration and innovation of 5G and vertical industries. With key industrial applications such as industrial Internet and car networking as breakthroughs, we will build a 5G network that supports the development of the industry.
In fact, as early as February 2013, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the National Development and Reform Commission, and the Ministry of Science and Technology jointly established the IMT-2020 (5G) Promotion Team to conduct research on China's 5G vision and needs, 5G spectrum issues, 5G key technologies, and 5G standardization issues. layout. The organizational structure of this promotion group is based on the original IMT-Advanced (4G) promotion group, which consists of multiple working groups, including requirements working group, spectrum work group, wireless technology working group, network technology working group, several standard working groups, and knowledge. Property Rights Working Group.
The introduction of IMT-2020 (5G) group leader national radio monitoring center began in 2013. Under the deployment of the IMT-2020 (5G) promotion group, the center has carried out a series of 5G R&D work, mainly assuming spectrum requirements and candidate frequency bands. , electromagnetic compatibility analysis, spectrum utilization efficiency assessment and other research tasks, including leading the "IMT-2020 candidate frequency band analysis and assessment", to participate in major national science and technology major projects such as "post-IMT-Advanced mobile communication technology and development strategy research" and " The fifth-generation mobile communication (5G) system is a pre-research and development.
In terms of candidate frequency bands, Zhao Shibi, Director of the Spectrum Management Research Division of the State Radio Monitoring Center, introduced that in September 2014, the Center and the GS Association jointly held the International Symposium on Future Mobile Communication Spectrum to analyze and analyze the 450MHz-5GHz radio frequency spectrum of China and the next generation of mobile Communications and spectrum and other content have published joint research reports. The report proposes an optimization scheme for the 450 MHz-5 GHz spectrum resources to be used by the next generation mobile network (NGMN), and studies the 6 GHz or higher spectrum resources that may be used by NGMN in China, and proposes the spectrum layout proposal of NGMN in China.
Dr. Wang Tan of the National Radio Monitoring Center stated that in the course of the evolution of mobile communications, China has continuously changed its roles and successively experienced various stages of "2G tracking, 3G breakthrough, and 4G synchronization." In the 5G era, China took the lead in establishing the IMT-2020 (5G) promotion team in the Asia-Pacific region, integrating production, learning, research, and using elite forces, and actively exported ideas to international organizations such as the International Telecommunication Union.
"At present, China is steadily advancing its 5G R&D work and has been ahead of the International Telecommunication Union's work schedule appropriately. It is believed that China's role in the 5G standardization process will be further enhanced than in the 4G era and will make it impossible for the global 5G industry to develop. Alternative contributions,” said Huang Biao, deputy chief engineer of the National Radio Monitoring Center.
In addition to research at the national level, Chinese companies, including China Mobile, Huawei, and ZTE, have all actively developed and deployed 5G technologies. In February 2014, China Mobile publicly stated that China Mobile will fully support the development of 5G projects, and hopes to continue to play a leading role in the field of mobile communication standards by striving to guide the development of industrial 5G technologies and technical standards. At this year's multiple world-class mobile communications exhibitions, China Mobile also jointly announced a 5G cooperation joint statement with Japan’s DoCoMo and South Korea’s KT, announcing that three operators will jointly research and enrich 5G requirements for the Asian market and explore new 5G services. , New vertical market, carry out 5G key technology and system verification, and cooperate with the Global Standardization Organization to achieve globally harmonized spectrum planning and unified 5G standards.
Recently, the three major domestic operators also revealed that they have formulated a plan to start commercial use of 5G networks by 2020. The construction of test networks and related tests will start as soon as possible next year. If the preparatory work progresses smoothly, the three major operators will probably begin to invest in 5G network construction in 2018, and will officially start commercial use by 2020.
According to industry insiders, Chinese enterprises have a long way to go in the battle for the strategic heights of the 5G strategy. Li Bo, a senior partner of Beijing Dinghong Yuanzheng Intellectual Property Agency, patented the 5G technology and discovered that as of April 1, 2015, the relevant applicant’s patent application for 5G technology filed in China was 211, in the United States. The number of patent applications submitted was 179. Among the world's major applicants, the largest number of 5G patent applications filed was NTT (Japan Telegraph and Telephone Corporation), with 61 applications; Samsung ranked second and filed 53 patent applications; Alcatel-Lucent used The traditional communications industry leader also submitted 41 patent applications.
“The number of patent applications submitted by Huawei in China for 5G technology is 30, and Southeast Asia University, ZTE Corporation (000063, shares), and the Institute of Telecommunication Science and Technology have also accumulated certain patents for 5G technology. Compared with the distribution of the number of patents, In Japan, South Korea, Europe, the United States and other countries and regions, our country’s R&D strength is not concentrated, and the level of research and development needs to be further improved.” Li Bo said frankly that compared to China’s 2G era, the technology has fallen behind, with Huawei and ZTE. Chinese companies represented by Datang Telecom (600198, etc.) are rapidly closing the gap with the world's advanced level in the 5G era. 
On February 23, 2018, on the eve of the World Mobile Communications Conference (MWC), Vodafone and Huawei announced that the two companies have cooperated in Spain to adopt the non-independent 3GPP 5G new wireless standard and the Sub6 GHz band to complete the world's first 5G call test.
Vodafone claimed that this test used a test network and test equipment to perform real-time data calls with 4G to 5G dual connectivity. This connection started at 4G, after which a data connection was established on the 5G network. Vodafone also said that engineers have successfully tested real-time HD video calls using the same method.
Huawei said that the results of this test show that 5G technology based on 3GPP standards has matured.